Gwadar - Deep Water Sea Port (Balochistan)
Gwadar is a deep water port city in Balochistan on its south western coast on the Arabia Sea at the distance of 629 km from Karachi. Gwadar will be the next important sea port in the Arabian Sea due to construction of CPEC route from China to Gwadar port.
Gwadare has boundaries with Lasbela, Kech, and Awaran districts. It also has boundaries with Sistan and Baluchestan province of Iran. It has 600 km long coastline in the Arabia Sea along the Gulf of Oman. The Makran Coastal Highway N-10 runs across the district along the Arabian Sea. The Ratodaro-Gwadar Motorway M-8 connects the Makran Coastal Highway N-10 near the town of Kappar in the district. The Makran Coastal Highway gives scenic ocean views from Lasbela district through the Gwadar district with a significant feature of Gwadar Port that is a deep warm water sea port. Gwadar Port is situated on the eastern bay of of a natural hammer-head protrusion of land distended into the apex of Arabian Sea. Gwadar also has Gwadar International Airport for all types of air services.
Its name derived from Gwat and Dar, that means the door of air, due to its vast windy ocean. The region shows the settlements related to the Bronze Age. It was part of the Achaemenid Persian Empire and remained under the control of Arab-Muslim army when they captured Makran in 643 century. In 15th century, The Portuguese attached Gwader by Vasco de Gama but he was defeated by the Baloch. By the end of 16th century, Akbar the Great conquered Gwadar as well as Balochistan after the Battle of Sehwan and remained under the Mughal control till 18th century. In 1783, the Khan of Kalat, Mir Noori Naseer, granted the region to Taimur Sultan, a ruler of Muscat and Oman. He ruled over the Gwadare by appointing a wali or governor. Then it became a part of the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman. It was exchange from Oman to Pakistan in 1958 with the effort of Feroz Khan Noon, prime minister of Pakistan, after paying Rs. 5.5 billion that was largely paid by Aga Khan IV.
Gwadar is located on a hammerhead-shaped peninsula, curved in a way, that forms two semi-circular bays on both sides. Gwadar is located on a narrow and sandy 12 km long isthmus which connects coast to rocky outcroppings in the Arabian Sea, also known as Koh-e-Batil having an elevation of 480 feet. The western bay, also known as Paddi Zirr, is shallow, whereas the other is deep water harbor known as Demi Zirr that is also called Gwadar Port. It was recognized as a suitable site for a deep water port in 1954 by the United States Geological Survey. In 2001, the first phase of Gwadar Port construction was initiated. In April 2015, China and Pakistan started to developed CPEC, China-Pakistan Economic Corridor, to connect western China to deep water seaport in Gwadar as link between One Belt One Road and Maritime Silk road Project, that is to establish a trade route by connected more than 150 countries. Gwadar is also a site of floating liquefied natural gas that is segment of the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project.
Gwadar is a very important seaport, all countries above Pakistan such China, Afganistan, Russia, and the other Russian States, have to use this port for their trade to other countries, which would increase the foreign reserves of Pakistan.
Jiwani is located toward east at a distance of 60 km from Gwadar town. The area includes mangrove forest extending across the international border with Iran and also an important habitat for different species of wildlife including endangered green turtles and olive ridley. It also has strategic importance near the Persian Gulf and has a naval base of Pakistan Navy. It was also used during World War II as an allied airfield. Darah beach is a beautiful location in the town of Jiwani. It gives a beautiful panoramic view of the Arabian Sea.
The Jiwani Coastal Wetland is ramsar site to protected the mangrove forests and the endanger wildlife there. It has an area of 46 square kilometers and located at the edge of Gawater Bay along the delta of Dasht River. It extends towards the Iran border.
Ormara is just in the mid of Karachi and Gwadar. It is an historical route that is linked with the Alexander the Great, who stayed there on coming back after conquering the lands of Punjab, Sindh, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The Jinnah Naval Base of the Pakistan Navy is also located there. The Ormara beach is place for wonderful enjoyment for a day and gives scenic views of the ocean. Ormara Turtle Beach is a wonderful location to enjoy the colonies of sea turtles.
Buzi Makola Wildlife Sanctuary is an ideal and natural place for the protection of marine-life near Khor Kalmat in the Gwadar district. It is established in 1972 on an area of 1446 square kilometers. Khor Kalmat is a coastal lagoon along the Makran coast along the Makran Coastal Highway. It is place where the Basol River drains.
Fish processing is the main industry in the district. Fishing is the main profession of the local people here. The large quantity of fish is transported to Karachi.
The weather of Gwadar district is extreme hot, but due to the sea, its temperature remains moderate as compared to other hot areas of Pakistan. In the same way, the temperature in the winter season is also moderate, so it is warmer in winters as compare to other inland areas. It receives negligible amount of rainfalls in the monsoon period, but due sea breeze, it also receives considerable amount of rainfalls in the winter season.