Khairpur is located at the distance of 452 km from Karachi on the left bank of the Indus River and extends to the border between India and Pakistan. Khairpur is founded by Mir Sohrab Khan of the Talpur dynasty in 1783, served as a princely state at that time.
Khairpur district is bounded by Shikarpur, Sukkur, Shaheed Benazirabad, Sanghar, Larkana, and Naushahro Feroze districts. The National Highway N-5 runs across the district on its western side and connects with other towns in the district. Sanghar road runs in the center of the town access eastern part of the district. It is also connected with the Lahore-Karachi main railway track.
The Talpur dynasty is founded by Mir Fateh Ali Khan in 1783 and became the ruler of Sindh after defeating the Kalhoras at the Battle of Halani. The region is founded by Mir Sohrab Khan in 1783. In 1832, Mir Ali Muran Khan had signed a treaty with British to secure the Princely status of their state. In 1955, the Khairpur state was merged with Pakistan with the approval of new constitution of Pakistan.
The land along the Indus River and canals originated from the Sukkur Barrage, is fertile to produce various crops such as cotton, sugarcane, wheat, etc. Most of its eastern part along with Indian border is part of Thar Desert, therefore it is barren and just moving sand dunes. There are several orchards in which date orchards are famous and produce best quality dates. It also produces guava, mango, and banana.
The Faiz Mahal was built by Mir Sohran Khan in 1798 for the purpose of court for royal palace for the Khairpur dynasty. It includes the main chambers with sixteen waiting rooms and guest rooms alongside the darbar and dinning halls. At present, it was the residence of the last Talpur monarch Mir Ali Murad Khan and his family. It is located near National Highway N-5 in the Khairpur city.
Kot Diji Fort, also known as Fort Ahmadabad, is situated on the National Highway N-55 in the town of Kot Diji in the Khairpur district. It was built in the 18th century during the Talpur dynasty by Mir Sohrab Khan over a pre-Harappan civilization archaeological site during 2500 to 2800 BCE as remains of pre-Harappan civilization are found. It is constructed on the top of 110 feet tall hill near the town of Kot Diji. It has a total perimeter of 1.8 kilometers. There are three 50 feet tall towers for observation. It is an army and defense fort as there are several sites for cannon placements and hidden passages for safety and protection. There is prison, courtroom, cells for army, and a small royal residence.
Kot Diji also has an ancient site of the Indus Valley Civilization dating 3300 BCE. The site has citadel area on high ground and outside section of the site. It is located at a distance of 45 km from the Khairpur city on the left bank of the Indus River. It is situated at the foot of the Rohri Hills, where Kot Diji fort was built around 1790. It is classified as a different archaeological culture based on the articles found there. It is a pre-Harappan as unbaked bricks had been used for construction of fort as well as less use of metals. The sign of extensive burns on overall site are also found there, which are observed in all of the pre-Harappan sites such as Gumla, Amri, and Naushero.
Dubbi Village is located at a distance of 10 km from Thari Mirwa town on the edge of Thar Desert in the Khairpur district. It is famous for seven natural water lakes in which Sanero salt water lake, Jmal Shah Lake, Khuth Lake, and Bakri Waro Lake are famous.
Mehrano Wildlife Sanctuary is riverine forest that is privately preserved by the Talpur Mir royal family of the Khaipur State in the Khairpur district near the Kot Diji town. It includes forest and hunting area and is home for various flora and fauna. In forest, there are several different species of animals such as blackbuck, hog deer, Indian gazelle, wild boar, etc. There is also a lake in the forest which attracts thousands of local and migratory birds. The site is available for tourist to observe these wild animals, but hunting is allowed in specific season and for restricted animals.
The shrine of Sachal Sarmast is situated in Daraza Sharif on Gambat-Ranipur Road at a distance of 40 km from the Khairpur city. He was a famous Sufi poet in Sindh during the Kalhoro and Talpur era. It is claimed that he descended from the second Caliph of Islam, Hazrat Umar. He was died in 1827 and buried in Daraza Sharif. His three days annual celebration occurs on 13th of Ramazan. Shrine building is squared shape with one large sized dome on its roof. It is decorated with various motifs and tile works.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is an arid region covered two hundred thousands square kilometers along the border between India and Pakistan. It is the 20th largest desert of the world. Nearly 85% of the Thar Desert in India. It is also known as the Cholistan Desert in the Punjab region. It only receives 4 to 20 inches rainfall per year. Instead of its harsh weather, it is one of the most populated desert area in the world. The main agricultural products of the Thar Desert are bajra, pulses, maize, and groundnut.
The weather of Khairpur district is extreme hot and dry in the summer season, but in the winter season, the weather becomes little bit pleasant and cool. In monsoon period, it receives some rainfalls.