Larkana - Homeland of Indus Valley Civilization (Sindh)
Larkana is situated at a distance of 471 km from Karachi on the right bank of the Indus River on Indus Highway N-55. It is the main home of the Indus Valley Civilization, Mohenjo-Daro which is the largest archaeological site located in the Larkana district.
Larkana is bounded with Dadu, Shikarpur, Kairpur, Jacobabad, Qambar Shahdadkot, and Naushahro Feroze districts. The Indus Highway N-55 runs in western part of the district and it connects with other major towns in the district. Larkana-Mohenjo-Daro Highway N-155 also connected with Indus Highway runs across the center of the district. Several roads from the center of towns are available to access any surrounding area in the district. It is also connected with the railway on the main Karachi-Larkana track. Moenjo-daro International Airport is also used for national and international flights for Larkana.
Larkana is fertile land due to the alluvial plains of the Indus River and two canals from the Sukkur Barrage flowing in the district. There are several orchards of various fruits of guava dates, and berries. Larkana is famous for the growth of guava both nationally and internationally. It also produces various crops such as sugarcane, wheat, rice, and cotton. There are several rice process and sugar mills to process the production of sugarcane and rice in the district.
Larkana is famous due to the Bhutto family, which is one of the main ruling families in Pakistan. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was the founder of Pakistan Peoples Party and also was the prime minister of Pakistan during 1973 and 1977. Mausoleum of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto is located at Garhi Khuda Bakhsh in the Larkana district. It also a burial place of many member of Bhutto family including Benazir Bhutto who was also prime minister of Pakistan and also first prime minister of Islamic state. Mazaar is constructed with white marble tiles inscribed with calligraphy and fresco design. It has five domes and like Taj Mahal four iwans are constructed.
Mohenjo-Daro is the most famous archaeological site related to the Indus Valley Civilization dated to 2500 BCE. It was the largest settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization and one of the oldest major cities as compare to ancient Egypt, Minoan Crete, Mesopotamia, and Norte Chico. Mohenjo Daro was abandoned in the 19th century BCE with the decline of Indus Valley civilization. Its actual name is unknown, but based on the excavation, its ancient name could be Kukkutarma. Mohenjo Daro is the modern name of the city that means Mound of the Dead Men in Sindhi language. A Buddhist stupa dated 150-500 CE is identified there. The city has a planned structure with rectilinear buildings arranged in grid like layout. City had a central marketplace, water system using wells and proper drainage system, large public paths, grain storage system, and assembly halls. It is located on the right bank of the Indus River at a distance of 28 km away from the Larkana city in south.
Shah Baharo was a military commander and warrior of Kalhora dynasty of Sindh during the rule of Noor Muhammad Kalhoro and Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. He fought eighty-four battles in his life. He died in 1735 and tomb was built by Mian Ghualam Shah Kalhoro in 1774. Tomb is located in the Larkana City. It is decorated with fresco painting on the inner and outer walls and it has large-sized dome on its roof.
The weather of the Larkana district is extreme hot and dry in the summer season, and it becomes mild cool in the winter season. It receives negligible amount of rainfall in the monsoon period.