Kacchi is a district of Balochistan province at a distance of 175 km from Quetta city via Quetta-Jacobabad Highway N-65. It was known as Bolan until 2008. It is famous for the archeological site of Mehrgarh. It was remained as part of various dynasties in the central Balochistan and Afghanistan.
Kacchi district is bounded by Jhal Magsi, Sibi, Khuzdar, Mastung, and Kalat districts. The Quetta-Jacobabad Highway N-65 runs in the upper part of the district and can be used to access the various towns of the district. It is also connected with railway track via Sibi-Quetta track.
Kacchi is an old historical settlement of Mehrgarh. It was an important town during various historical dynasty such Samma, Arghun, and Kalhora. Then it was taken by Nadir Shah of Persia, who gave this region to the princely state of the Khanate of Kalat in 1740. During the British period, region was famous for a jail constructed by them in the Machh town in the Kacchi district.
Machh is important town in the Kacchi district lies between the stony hills. A jail was built there in 1929 by the British Government. Another importance of the town is the coal mines, which have several hundred tons of coal reserves.
Kacchi is a plain area within the mountain ranges and also known as Kachhi Plain. These Kacchi plains covers Kachhi district, Lasbela district, some of part of Sibi and Dera Bughti districts. The Kharo Nala, the Bolan River, the Nari River, and several other seasonal streams are the main water source in this area and used for irrigation in the Kachhi plains. It can produce various cash crops such as wheat, cotton, jawar, garam, etc. There are several orchards of fruits of grapes, pears, dates, etc.
The Kacchi Plain lies mainly in Kachhi, Lasbela, and Sibi districts and is an arid plain. Some regions of Kacchi Plain are also included in Dera Bugti, Nasirabad, and Sohbatpur districts. It is covered with mountain ranges such as Makran Mountain range, the Siahan Mountain range, and the Kirthar Mountain range on its three sides except to the east leads toward the Indus River. It is fertile area and mostly irrigated through the seasonal rivers and streams.
The Bolan Pass is an historical pass located in the Toba Kakar range on the south of the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. It connects Sibi to Quetta by Quetta-Jacobabad Highway N-65 by stretch of the Bolan Valley from Rindli in the south to Kolpur in the north. It also connects both cities by train trek of Rohri-Chaman Railway Line. There are numerous ravines and gorges near the pass. It was used by Ahmad Shah Durrani, the Aghan ruler, in 1748 to invade India, as it was one of the most important passages to access Afghanistan and Central Asia. It was also used by the British Army in 1839 during the First Anglo Afghan War.
Mehrgarh is an archaeological site dated during 7,000 BCE - 2,000 BCE in Kacchi Plain in Balochistan near the Bolan Pass. It is a Neolithic archaeological site that is the last period of the stone age. It was discovered in 1974 by the French archaeologists. It lies along the Bolan River near the town of Naushahra in the Kacchi district. From the Quetta-Jacobabad Highway N-65, take next left turn after crossing the Dhadar city. It is one of the earliest settlements and shows evidence of farming of wheat and barly as well as herding animals like goat and sheep. It was the foundation of the Indus Valley Civilization of the Bronze Age. Site contains six mounds showing the settlements in the site of Mehrgarh. During excavation, more than 32 thousands artifacts have been collected from the ruins of the site. The construction of houses were with mud bricks with granaries to store grains.
Kacchi district is one the lowest human development index districts in Pakistan due to poverty and low literacy rate in the district. Large population of district is exploited due to landlords and sardars as in many other districts in Balochistan, central Sindh, South Punjab, and tribal areas of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa.
The weather of Kacchi is extreme hot and dry in summer season, whereas it becomes moderate cool and pleasant in the winter season. It receives limited amount of rainfalls in the monsoon period as well as rain in the winter seasons due to western breeze.