Peshawar - Capital of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa (Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa)
Peshawar, the Capital of Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, is located on the eastern end of Khyber Pass surrounded by different mountain ranges on three sides, at the distance of 160 km from Islamabad on Islamabad-Peshawar Motorway M-1. It is the most important and largest city in Khybeer Pakhtoonkhwa.
Peshawar is a historic city and was once constructed as Walled City just like Lahore with a number of entrances. The name of city is derived from the Sanskrit word Purushapura and the current name was called by the Mughal Emmperor Akbar. It was also the centre of the Gandhara as well as an important location in subsequent civilizations. It was also the capital of the Kushan Empire ruled by Kanishka. It was also considered as the important trade centre of the Mughal Empire. There are a lot of historical places such as Mohabbat Khan Mosque, the Qissa Khawani Bazaar, Bala Hissar, etc.
Peshawar has its boundaries with Khyber, Mohmand Agency, Charsadda, Kohat, and Nowshera districts. Peshawar is connected with Islamabad and Lahore via historic Grand Trunk Road and Peshawar-Islamabad Motorway M-1 and Islamabad-Lahore Motorway M-2. Peshawar is another trade center between Afghanistan and Pakistan through Torkham Border crossing Khyber Pass. The Grand Trunk Road leads to Afghan border via the Khyber Pass to Kabul. The Indus Highway connects it with Karachi via Dera Ismail Khan and northern Sindh. Peshawar is also connected with rail for all type of transportation. The Bacha Khan International Airport serves all type of national and international air transportation.
The old city walls are almost destroyed, but only some remnants of these remain. The few of the old houses and havelis show the history of the old city. Most of these buildings are available in Sethi Mohallah. Many historical monuments and bazaars including the Mohabbat Khan Mosque, Chowk Yadgar, Qissa Khawani Bazaar, and Kotla Mohsin Khan.
The Peshawar Museum was established in 1907 in the memory of Queen Victoria. It has a collection of almost 14,000 items and is famous for the collection of Greco-Buddhist art. It also has ancient collections of the Gandharan, Parthian, Kushan, and Indo-Scythian periods.
The Cunningham Clock Tower was constructed in 1900 in commemoration of the Diamond Jubilee of the Queen Victoria. It is located at the Ghanta Ghar Chowk in Peshawar.
Sethi Mohallah is an traditionally arranged town in the old city of Peshawar near the Ghanta Ghar Chowk. It has seven South Asian mansions elaborated with wooden carvings.
Bala Hissar is a historic fortress in Peshawar used as a royal residence by the Durrani Empire since 18th century. The subsequent rulers captured the fort for their use. In 1823, the Sikhs destroyed most part of the fort, then it was repaired by the British Empire. Now it is a headquaters for Pakistan's Frontier Corps. The fort is built on a high mound in northwestern side of Peshawar City. The fort is opened for tourists on Saturdays for families and Sundays for all, they must have their CNIC along with them.
Mohabbat Khan Mosque is 17th century mosque constructed by Mughals in 1630. It is located in the old Peshawar city at the highest point. The prayer chamber has three fluted domes with six small decorative minarets and additional two minarets. Outside the prayer chamber, there is square corridor bounded by wall with abolish area in the center. In the front of the corridor, there is a huge entry gate in the center of the front boundary wall.
Peshawar city is a gateway to the historical Khyber Pass which connects the Peshawar with the Kabul city in Afghanistan via Turkham Border. It is the traditional trade route since the Kushan era about two thousands year ago. Khyber Gate is beautiful landmark on the beginning of the Khyber Pass.
Warsak Dam is a concrete gravity dam situated on the Kabul River in Peshwar at a distance of 20 km from the city in the barren mountains of the Hindu Kush Range. It is built on the narrow passage of the Kabul River. It has nearly 500 MW electricity producing capacity. It is good place for one-day picnic with family and enjoy the boating in the Kabul River in the lake of Warsak Dam.
Qissa Khwani Bazaar is a historical market in the city of Peshawar. In 1930, more than 400 protesters were shot dead by the British soldiers in the Qissa Khwani Bazaar massacre. It is also famous for Chai and Qehwa shops. Several Indian film actors have association with this bazaar.
Several important industries are operative in the Peshawar Industrial Estate and Hayatabad Industrial Estate. These industries are related to food processing, marble working, wood working, etc.
Peshawar has a semi-arid climate, having a very hot and prolonged summer and whereas in winter there is mild to cool weather. Peshawar is not a monsoon region, but it receives rainfalls due to western disturbances.